Nitroxide radicals as contrast substances for magnetic resonance imaging of pathologies, associated with abnormalities in the cellular redox-status and induction of oxidative stress. Part 2
Redox signaling is a key mechanism in maintaining cellular homeostasis and normal physiology of the organism. The violation of this mechanism plays an important role in the pathogenesis of many diseases – malignant, neurodegenerative, atherogenic, autoimmune, diabetes, etc., whose common characteristics is the induction of oxidative stress and disruption of redox-balance of cells, tissues and body fluids. In this context, of particular importance are the methods of visualization and analysis of the redox-status of biological objects and the perfect approach should provide a direct and non-invasive detection in vivo. Currently, the efforts are aimed at mapping the redox-status of tissues and organs in intact organisms, using redox-sensitive contrast substances and different imaging techniques. This review describes the prospects of nitroxideenhanced magnetic resonance imaging techniques for visualization and analysis of tissue redox-status in vivo in the brain, abdominal organs, and in tumorogenesis. The article is intended for a wide range of readers – from students to specialists in the field.
Key words: MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING (MRI). ELECTRONPARAMAGNETIC RESONANCE (EPR). OVERHAUSERENHANCED MRI (OMRI). CELLULAR AND TISSUE REDOXSTATUS. NITROXIDES